Thanks for the suggestion.Menno de Wolf commented
I have a 2018 Mac Mini with Mojave and it let me choose my thunderbolt 3 disk as OneDrive folder.
Syncing works fine.
The only problem I am facing, is that the drive does not mount correctly. It mounts the drive in read only. I can see the drive in disk utility, I first have to unmount it and then mount it (which is cumbersome). After that it works, until the Mac goes, and comes back from sleep. The same issue happens. Because the drive does not mount, I have to quit OneDrive and after starting it again, it scan all my data again (which takes quite some time for 3TB on a LaCie disk).
So it seems that Microsoft is working on it. The solution does not seem to work 100%.